Last edited by Meztikazahn
Wednesday, July 15, 2020 | History

2 edition of Recent advances in the compensated Germanium bolometer and other far-infra-red detectors. found in the catalog.

Recent advances in the compensated Germanium bolometer and other far-infra-red detectors.

Solomon Zwerdling

Recent advances in the compensated Germanium bolometer and other far-infra-red detectors.

by Solomon Zwerdling

  • 327 Want to read
  • 35 Currently reading

Published by Douglas Advanced Research Laboratories in Huntington Beach, Calif .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Bolometer.,
  • Infrared spectroscopy.

  • Edition Notes

    Bibliography: p. 93-96.

    SeriesDouglas Advanced Research Laboratories. Research communication, 106, Research communication (Douglas Advanced Research Laboratories) ;, 106.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQC338 .Z9
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxvi, 96 p.
    Number of Pages96
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL5689475M
    LC Control Number70008308

      High-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication and are still the best solution for high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. In the present work, we will show the results of the characterization of new surface treatments for the production of these detectors, studied in the framework of our multidisciplinary research program in HPGe detector . "Germanium-Based technologies: From Materials to Devices" is the first book to provide a broad, in-depth coverage of the field, including recent advances in Ge-technology and the fundamentals in material science, device physics and semiconductor processing.

    Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Ge(Li) detectors must always be preserved at LN2 temperature while Si(Li) detectors can be stored at room temperature for a short period due to low mobility of the Li ion in silicon. The other way to improve the net impurity concentration is to add additional refining processes so that the intended purity of the crystal can be met.

    source-based efficiency calibration of gamma-ray detectors [1, 2, 3]. Most traditional approaches allow measurement of efficiencies down to about 45 to 60 keV, but recent advances have allowed the extension of mathematical efficiency calibrations down to as low as 10 keV [4], which is difficult to achieve using a source-based approach. A low-.   1. Introduction. Attempts to apply segmented germanium planar detectors to nuclear medicine imaging extend back at least forty years (McCready et al., ).These early efforts were hindered by difficulties with detector fabrication, cumbersome electronics, and limited computing power, in addition to the need for a bulky liquid nitrogen dewar to achieve required operating temperatures .


Share this book
You might also like
Supervision - now and then

Supervision - now and then

Orkneyinga saga

Orkneyinga saga

The enemy has a face.

The enemy has a face.

THE SEMI-ATTACHED COUPLE & THE SEMI-DETACHED HOUSE

THE SEMI-ATTACHED COUPLE & THE SEMI-DETACHED HOUSE

The Very First Christmas Advent Calendar

The Very First Christmas Advent Calendar

The essays of Michel de Montaigne

The essays of Michel de Montaigne

Food in antiquity

Food in antiquity

Methods of studying the individual child

Methods of studying the individual child

Luminescence and the solid state

Luminescence and the solid state

urge to live

urge to live

Cat care

Cat care

Cell mediated reactions

Cell mediated reactions

Summary Health Statistics for the U.S. Population (November 2003): National Health Interview Survey, 2000 (Vital and Health Statistics)

Summary Health Statistics for the U.S. Population (November 2003): National Health Interview Survey, 2000 (Vital and Health Statistics)

Harold, the happy handyman.

Harold, the happy handyman.

Recent advances in the compensated Germanium bolometer and other far-infra-red detectors by Solomon Zwerdling Download PDF EPUB FB2

Far infrared are that it be very sensitive and that it possess very little noise. The work of Low showed that the germanium bolometer could fulfil these requirements. The bolometer is a thermal detector and so unlike the photon detectors it responds to allAuthor: Adrian James Tumber.

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelengths 1 mm >λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude (airplane and balloon based) and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical by: Far infrared photoconductive detection is considered in the wavelength range 30 to )π m.

High sensitivity direct detection in a low photon flux background, as typically met in spaceborne astrophysics measurements, is emphasized. Recent advances in extrinsic germanium photoconductors, particularly stressed Ge:Ga are reported. Wideband photoconductive detection with Hg i-x Cd x Te and.

Other articles where Germanium detector is discussed: radiation measurement: Germanium detectors: Semiconductor detectors also can be used in gamma-ray spectroscopy. In this case, however, it is advantageous to choose germanium rather than silicon as the detector material.

With an atomic number of 32, germanium has a much higher photoelectric cross section than silicon (atomic. Other Bolometer Materials bolometer detectors are now produced in larger volumes J. VanNylen, H. Vercammen, A. VanHulsel, “Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for. automotive. This book describes current concepts of antimonide-based IR detectors, focusing on designs having the largest impact on the mainstream of IR detector technologies.

The bolometer is a resistive. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers.

Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

The operating temperature for intrinsic detectors is, therefore, higher than for other types of photon detectors. The attributes of HgCdTe translate to flexibility and the capability of producing short-wavelength IR (SWIR), middle-wavelength IR (MWIR), and long-wavelength IR (LWIR) detectors (see, e.g., Reine et al.p.

Recent experimental and theoretical achievements are reviewed on three types of laser oscillation inp-type germanium; the intervalence band (IVB) laser oscillation due to transitions between the light-hole band and the heavy-hole band, the light-hole cyclotron resonance (LHCR) laser oscillation, and the heavy hole cyclotron resonance (HHCR) maser oscillation.

Kelin Kuhn, in High Mobility Materials for CMOS Applications, Germanium-Based Materials. Germanium (Ge) was the first transistor material, dominating the industry from to the early s. In fact, the debate over whether Ge or Si should be the primary material for semiconductor processing underlies the historical separation between William Shockley (who invented the point.

Germanium (Ge) is considered a critical element due to its many industrial applications; Ge is a metalloid used in solar cells, fiber optics, metallurgy, chemotherapy, and polymerization catalysis.

The main sources of Ge are sulfides ores of Zn, Pb, and Cu, coal deposits, as well as by-products and residues from the processing of these ores and coals (e.g., smelting flue dust and coal fly.

Many advances in nanomaterials for detectors have been made allowing for very low cost technology. A detailed review of nano-based detector research is given in reference [ 78 ].

DARPA has funded several new approaches for detector development using carbon nanotube, graphene, nanoparticles and other nanomaterials. A bolometer, using gallium-doped single crystal germanium as the temperature-sensitive resistive element, has been constructed and operated at 2°K with a noise equivalent power of 5×10−13 w and a time constant of μsec.

Sensitivities approaching the limits set by thermodynamics have been achieved, and it is shown that the background radiation limited or BLIP condition can be satisfied. to Other Detector Technologies for Isotope Identification Synopsis: High Purity Germanium (HPGe) is the only radiation detection technology that provides sufficient information to accurately and reliably identify radionuclides from their passive gamma ray emissions.

HPGe detectors have a x improvement in resolution as compared to that of. Germanium’s superior electron and hole mobility offers a new means by which we can develop higher performance devices.

4 In the recent years, considerable progress has been made toward replacing the silicon in transistors, photovoltaics, and IR detectors with germanium. References. 1) Haller, E. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9, The application of infrared detectors based on epitaxially grown semiconductors such as HgCdTe, InSb and InGaAs is limited by their high cost and difficulty in raising operating temperature.

The development of infrared detectors depends on cheaper materials with high carrier mobility, tunable spectral response and compatibility with large-scale semiconductor processes.

In recent years, the. @article{osti_, title = {Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices}, author = {Haller, E E}, abstractNote = {Germanium, element No, was discovered in by Clemens Winkler. Its first broad application was in the form of point contact Schottky diodes for radar reception during WWII.

The addition of a closely spaced second contact led to the first all-solid-state electronic. The optical properties of germanium can be tailored by combining strain engineering and n-type doping.

In this paper, we review the recent progress that has been reported in the study of germanium light emitters for silicon photonics. We discuss the different approaches that were implemented for strain engineering and the issues associated with n-type doping.

The FWHM for germanium detectors is a function of energy. For a MeV photon, the FWHM is keV, which is very low. On the other hand, germanium has a small band gap energy (E gap = eV), which requires to operate the detector at cryogenic temperatures.

At room temperatures the noise caused by thermal excitation is very high. Germanium detectors are semiconductor diodes having a p-i-n structure in which the intrinsic (i) region is sensitive to ionizing radiation, particularly x rays and gamma rays.

Under reverse bias, an electric field extends across the intrinsic or depleted region. When germanium detectors were first developed, only very small crystals were available.

Low efficiency was the result, and germanium detector efficiency is still often quoted in relative terms to a "standard" 3″ x 3″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Crystal growth techniques have since improved, allowing detectors to be manufactured that are.Transistors that use a combination of silicon and germanium in the channel can reportedly be found in some recent chips, and they made an appearance in a demonstration of future chip.The dark current at −1 V is nA, which is low relative to other germanium devices in literature [17] [18] [19].

The photocurrent at −1 V is nA, giving a ratio between dark current and photocurrent ofwhich indicates photons with a wavelength of nm .